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New York


New York
New York is the 3th highest population ranking
 state in the United States of America.



New York

State of New York
Flag of New York State seal of New York
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Empire State
Motto(s): Excelsior (Latin)[1]
Ever upward
State song(s): "I Love New York"
Map of the United States with New York highlighted
Official language None
Spoken languages
Demonym New Yorker
Capital Albany
Largest city New York City
Largest metro New York City metropolitan area
Area Ranked 27th
 • Total 54,555[3] sq mi
(141,300 km2)
 • Width 285 miles (455 km)
 • Length 330 miles (530 km)
 • % water 13.5
 • Latitude 40° 30′ N to 45° 1′ N
 • Longitude 71° 51′ W to 79° 46′ W
Population Ranked 4th
 • Total 19,795,791 (2015 est)[4]
 • Density 416.42/sq mi  (159/km2)
Ranked 7th
Elevation
 • Highest point Mount Marcy[5][6][7]
5,344 ft (1,629 m)
 • Mean 1,000 ft  (300 m)
 • Lowest point Atlantic Ocean[6][7]
sea level
Admission to Union July 26, 1788 (11th)
Governor Andrew Cuomo (D)
Lieutenant Governor Kathy Hochul (D)
Legislature New York Legislature
 • Upper house State Senate
 • Lower house State Assembly
U.S. Senators Chuck Schumer (D)
Kirsten Gillibrand (D)
U.S. House delegation 18 Democrats,
9 Republicans (
list)
Time zone Eastern: UTC -5/-4
ISO 3166 US-NY
Abbreviations NY
Website www.ny.gov

New York is a state in the Northeastern United States and is the 27th-most extensive, fourth-most populous, and seventh-most densely populated U.S. state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont to the east. The state has a maritime border in the Atlantic Ocean with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the west and north. The state of New York, with an estimated 19.8 million residents in 2015,[4] is often referred to as New York State to distinguish it from New York City, the state's most populous city and its economic hub.

With an estimated population of 8.55 million in 2015,[8] New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States.[9][10][11] The New York City Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world.[12][13] New York City is a global city,[14] exerting a significant impact upon commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment, its fast pace[15] defining the term New York minute.[16] The home of the United Nations Headquarters,[17] New York City is an important center for international diplomacy[18] and has been described as the cultural and financial capital of the world,[19][20][21][22][23] as well as the world's most economically powerful city.[24][23][25] New York City makes up over 40% of the population of New York State. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York City Metropolitan Area, and nearly 40% lives on Long Island.[8] Both the state and New York City were named for the 17th century Duke of York, future King James II of England. The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester, Yonkers, and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany.

New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. The first Europeans to arrive were French colonists and Jesuit missionaries who arrived southward from settlements at Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was claimed by Henry Hudson for the Dutch, who built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany later developed. The Dutch soon also settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the colony of New Netherland, a multicultural community from its earliest days and a center of trade and immigration. The British annexed the colony from the Dutch in 1664. The borders of the British colony, the Province of New York, were similar to those of the present-day state.

Many landmarks in New York are well known to both international and domestic visitors, with New York State hosting four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls (shared with Ontario), and Grand Central Terminal.[26] New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom, democracy, and opportunity.[27] In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship,[28] social tolerance,[29] and environmental sustainability.[30][31] New York's higher education network comprises approximately 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 35 in the world.[32][33]

 

Contents

     

 

History

Main article: History of New York

16th century

In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazzano, an Italian explorer in the service of the French crown, explored the Atlantic coast of North America between the Carolinas and Newfoundland, including New York Harbor and Narragansett Bay. On April 17, 1524 Verrazanno entered New York Bay, by way of the Strait now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita, in honor of the King of France's sister. Verrazzano described it as "a vast coastline with a deep delta in which every kind of ship could pass" and he adds: "that it extends inland for a league and opens up to form a beautiful lake. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats". He landed on the tip of Manhattan and perhaps on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazanno's stay in this place was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Martha's Vineyard.[34]

In 1540 French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island, within present-day Albany; due to flooding, it was abandoned the next year. In 1614, the Dutch under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau, which they called Fort Nassau. Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, also within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse. Located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary "fort" was washed away by flooding in 1617,[35] and abandoned for good after Fort Orange (New Netherland) was built nearby in 1623.[36]

17th century

Henry Hudson's 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area. Sailing for the Dutch East India Company and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay on September 11 of that year.[37] Word of his findings encouraged Dutch merchants to explore the coast in search for profitable fur trading with local Native American tribes.

During the 17th century, Dutch trading posts established for the trade of pelts from the Lenape, Iroquois, and other tribes were founded in the colony of New Netherland. The first of these trading posts were Fort Nassau (1614, near present-day Albany); Fort Orange (1624, on the Hudson River just south of the current city of Albany and created to replace Fort Nassau), developing into settlement Beverwijck (1647), and into what became Albany; Fort Amsterdam (1625, to develop into the town New Amsterdam which is present-day New York City); and Esopus, (1653, now Kingston). The success of the patroonship of Rensselaerswyck (1630), which surrounded Albany and lasted until the mid-19th century, was also a key factor in the early success of the colony. The English captured the colony during the Second Anglo-Dutch War and governed it as the Province of New York. The city of New York was recaptured by the Dutch in 1673 during the Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672–1674) and renamed New Orange. It was returned to the English under the terms of the Treaty of Westminster a year later.[38]

18th century, the American Revolution, and statehood

New York and neighboring jurisdictions in 1777

The Sons of Liberty were organized in New York City during the 1760s, largely in response to the oppressive Stamp Act passed by the British Parliament in 1765. The Stamp Act Congress met in the city on October 19 of that year, composed of representatives from across the Thirteen Colonies who set the stage for the Continental Congress to follow. The Stamp Act Congress resulted in the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, which was the first written expression by representatives of the Americans of many of the rights and complaints later expressed in the United States Declaration of Independence. This included the right to representative government. At the same time, with strong trading between Britain and the United States on both business and personal levels many New York residents were Loyalists. The Capture of Fort Ticonderoga provided the cannon and gunpowder necessary to force a British withdrawal from the Siege of Boston in 1775.

New York was the only colony to not vote for independence, as the delegates were not authorized to do so. New York then endorsed the Declaration of Independence on July 9, 1776.[39] The New York State Constitution was framed by a convention which assembled at White Plains on July 10, 1776, and after repeated adjournments and changes of location, terminated its labors at Kingston on Sunday evening, April 20, 1777, when the new constitution drafted by John Jay was adopted with but one dissenting vote. It was not submitted to the people for ratification. On July 30, 1777, George Clinton was inaugurated as the first Governor of New York at Kingston.

About one-third of the battles of the American Revolutionary War took place in New York; the first major battle after U.S. independence was declared—and the largest battle of the entire war—was fought in New York at the Battle of Long Island (a.k.a. Battle of Brooklyn) in August 1776. After their victory, the British occupied New York City, making it their military and political base of operations in North America for the duration of the conflict, and consequently the focus of General George Washington's intelligence network. On the notorious British prison ships of Wallabout Bay, more American combatants died of intentional neglect than were killed in combat in every battle of the war, combined. Both sides of combatants lost more soldiers to disease than to outright wounds.The first of two major British armies were captured by the Continental Army at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777, a success that influenced France to ally with the revolutionaries.The state constitution was enacted in 1777. New York became the 11th state to ratify the United States Constitution, on July 26, 1788.

Preceded by
Virginia
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Ratified Constitution on July 26, 1788 (11th)
Succeeded by
North Carolina
British general John Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga in 1777.

In an attempt to retain their sovereignty and remain an independent nation positioned between the new United States and British North America, four of the Iroquois Nations fought on the side of the British; only the Oneida and their dependents, the Tuscarora, allied themselves with the Americans.[40] In retaliation for attacks on the frontier led by Joseph Brant and Loyalist Mohawk forces, the Sullivan Expedition of 1779 destroyed nearly 50 Iroquois villages, adjacent croplands and winter stores, forcing many refugees to British-held Niagara.[41]

As allies of the British, the Iroquois were forced out of New York, although they had not been part of treaty negotiations. They resettled in Canada after the war and were given land grants by the Crown. In the treaty settlement, the British ceded most Indian lands to the new United States. Because New York made treaty with the Iroquois without getting Congressional approval, some of the land purchases have been subject to land claim suits since the late 20th century by the federally recognized tribes. New York put up more than 5 million acres (20,000 km2) of former Iroquois territory for sale in the years after the Revolutionary War, leading to rapid development in upstate New York.[42] As per the Treaty of Paris, the last vestige of British authority in the former Thirteen Colonies—their troops in New York City—departed in 1783, which was long afterward celebrated as Evacuation Day.[43]

1800 map of New York from Low's Encyclopaedia

New York City was the national capital under the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, the first government. That organization was found to be insufficient, and prominent New Yorker Alexander Hamilton advocated a new government that would include an executive, national courts, and the power to tax. Hamilton led the Annapolis Convention (1786) that called for the Philadelphia Convention, which drafted the United States Constitution, in which he also took part. The new government was to be a strong federal national government to replace the relatively weaker confederation of individual states. Following heated debate, which included the publication of the now quintessential constitutional interpretation—The Federalist Papers—as a series of installments in New York City newspapers, New York was the 11th state to ratify the United States Constitution, on July 26, 1788.[44] New York remained the national capital under the new constitution until 1790, and was the site of the inauguration of President George Washington, the drafting of United States Bill of Rights, and the first session of the United States Supreme Court. Hamilton's revival of the heavily indebted United States economy after the war and the creation of a national bank significantly contributed to New York City becoming the financial center of the new nation.

Both the Dutch and the British imported African slaves as laborers to the city and colony; New York had the second-highest population of slaves after Charleston, SC. Slavery was extensive in New York City and some agricultural areas. The state passed a law for the gradual abolition of slavery soon after the Revolutionary War, but the last slave in New York was not freed until 1827.

19th century

The Erie Canal at Lockport, New York in 1839

Transportation in western New York was by expensive wagons on muddy roads before canals opened up the rich farm lands to long-distance traffic. Governor DeWitt Clinton promoted the Erie Canal that connected New York City to the Great Lakes, by the Hudson River, the new canal, and the rivers and lakes. Work commenced in 1817, and the Erie Canal opened in 1825. Packet boats pulled by horses on tow paths traveled slowly over the canal carrying passengers and freight.[45] Farm products came in from the Midwest, and finished manufactured moved west. It was an engineering marvel which opened up vast areas of New York to commerce and settlement. It enabled Great Lakes port cities such as Buffalo and Rochester to grow and prosper. It also connected the burgeoning agricultural production of the Midwest and shipping on the Great Lakes, with the port of New York City. Improving transportation, it enabled additional population migration to territories west of New York. After 1850, railroads largely replaced the canal.[46]

New York City was a major ocean port and had extensive traffic importing cotton from the South and exporting manufacturing goods. Nearly half of the state's exports were related to cotton. Southern cotton factors, planters and bankers visited so often that they had favorite hotels.[47] At the same time, activism for abolitionism was strong upstate, where some communities provided stops on the Underground Railroad. Upstate, and New York City, gave strong support for the American Civil War In terms of finances, volunteer soldiers, and supplies. The state provided more than 370,000 soldiers to the Union armies. Over 53,000 New Yorkers died in service, roughly one of every seven who served. However, Irish draft riots in 1862 were a significant embarrassment.[48][49]

Immigration

Further information: Ellis Island
Castle Garden when it served as New York's first immigrant depot. Over 8 million immigrants passed through these doors.
Ellis Island in 1905
Scenes at the Immigration Depot and a nearby dock on Ellis Island

Since the early 19th century, New York City has been the largest port of entry for legal immigration into the United States. In the United States, the federal government did not assume direct jurisdiction for immigration until 1890. Prior to this time, the matter was delegated to the individual states, then via contract between the states and the federal government. Most immigrants to New York would disembark at the bustling docks along the Hudson and East Rivers, in the eventual Lower Manhattan. On May 4, 1847 the New York State Legislature created the Board of Commissioners of Immigration to regulate immigration.[50]

The first permanent immigration depot in New York was established in 1855 at Castle Garden, a converted War of 1812 era fort located within what is now Battery Park, at the tip of Lower Manhattan. The first immigrants to arrive at the new depot were aboard three ships that had just been released from quarantine. Castle Garden served as New York's immigrant depot until it closed on April 18, 1890 when the federal government assumed control over immigration. During that period, more than 8 million immigrants passed through its doors (two out of every three U.S. immigrants).[51]

When the federal government assumed control, it established the Bureau of Immigration, which chose the three-acre Ellis Island in Upper New York Harbor for an entry depot. Already federally controlled, the island had served as an ammunition depot. It was chosen due its relative isolation with proximity to New York City and the rail lines of Jersey City, New Jersey, via a short ferry ride. While the island was being developed and expanded via land reclamation, the federal government operated a temporary depot at the Barge Office at the Battery.[52]

Ellis Island opened on January 1, 1892, and operated as a central immigration center until the National Origins Act was passed in 1924, reducing immigration. After that date, the only immigrants to pass through were displaced persons or war refugees. The island ceased all immigration processing on November 12, 1954 when the last person detained on the island, Norwegian seaman Arne Peterssen, was released. He had overstayed his shore leave and left on the 10:15 a.m. Manhattan-bound ferry to return to his ship.

More than 12 million immigrants passed through Ellis Island between 1892 and 1954. More than 100 million Americans across the United States can trace their ancestry to these immigrants.

Ellis Island was the subject of a contentious and long-running border and jurisdictional dispute between New York State and the State of New Jersey, as both claimed it. The issue was settled in 1998 by the U.S. Supreme Court which ruled that the original 3.3-acre (1.3 ha) island was New York State territory and that the balance of the 27.5 acres (11 ha) added after 1834 by landfill was in New Jersey.[53] The island was added to the National Park Service system in May 1965 by President Lyndon B. Johnson and is still owned by the Federal government as part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument. Ellis Island was opened to the public as a museum of immigration in 1990.[54]

September 11, 2001 attacks

Two talk gray, rectangular buildings spewing black smoke and flames, particularly from the left of the two.
United Airlines Flight 175 hits the South Tower of the original World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan on September 11, 2001.
Main article: September 11 attacks

On September 11, 2001, two of four hijacked planes were flown into the Twin Towers of the original World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, and the towers collapsed. 7 World Trade Center also collapsed due to damage from fires. The other buildings of the World Trade Center complex were damaged beyond repair and demolished soon thereafter. The collapse of the Twin Towers caused extensive damage and resulted in the deaths of 2,753 victims, including 147 aboard the two planes. Since September 11, most of Lower Manhattan has been restored. In the years since, many rescue workers and residents of the area have developed several life-threatening illnesses, and some have already died.[55]

A memorial at the site was opened to the public on September 11, 2011. A permanent museum later opened at the site on March 21, 2014. Upon its completion in 2014, the new One World Trade Center became the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere, at 1,776 feet (541 m).[56] Other skyscrapers are under construction at the site.

Flooding on Avenue C in Lower Manhattan, caused by Hurricane Sandy on October 29, 2012.[57]

Hurricane Sandy, 2012

On October 29 and 30, 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused extensive destruction of the state's shorelines, ravaging portions of New York City and Long Island with record-high storm surge, with severe flooding and high winds causing power outages for hundreds of thousands of New Yorkers, and leading to gasoline shortages and disruption of mass transit systems. The storm and its profound effects have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of New York City and Long Island to minimize the risk from another such future event. This is considered highly probable due to global warming and rise in sea levels.[58][59]

Enveloped by the Atlantic Ocean and Long Island Sound, New York City and Long Island alone are home to approximately 11 million residents conjointly.
The hydrologic source of the Hudson River is near or at Lake Tear of the Clouds, a small tarn in the Adironacks, photo circa 19th-century.
Lake George, one of numerous oligotrophic lakes in the Adirondack region, is nicknamed the Queen of American Lakes.
Mirror Lake in the Village of Lake Placid in the Adirondacks, site of the 1932 and the 1980 Winter Olympics.
Lake Flower in the Village of Saranac Lake, nicknamed the Capital of the Adirondacks.

Geography

Main article: Geography of New York
New York terrain.
Map of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers.
The Bear Mountain Bridge, spanning the Hudson River in the Hudson Valley.

New York covers 54,555 square miles (141,300 km2) and ranks as the 27th largest state by size.[3] The Great Appalachian Valley dominates eastern New York and contains the Lake Champlain Valley as its northern half and the Hudson Valley as its southern half within the state. The rugged Adirondack Mountains, with vast tracts of wilderness, lie west of the Lake Champlain Valley. The Hudson River begins near Lake Tear of the Clouds and flows south through the eastern part of the state without draining Lakes George or Champlain. Lake George empties at its north end into Lake Champlain, whose northern end extends into Canada, where it drains into the Richelieu River and then ultimately the Saint Lawrence River. Four of New York City's five boroughs are situated on three islands at the mouth of the Hudson River: Manhattan Island; Staten Island; and Long Island, which contains Brooklyn and Queens at its western end.

Most of the southern part of the state rests on the Allegheny Plateau, which extends from the southeastern United States to the Catskill Mountains; the section in New York State is known as the Southern Tier. The Tug Hill region arises as a cuesta east of Lake Ontario. The western section of the state is drained by the Allegheny River and rivers of the Susquehanna and Delaware River systems. The Delaware River Basin Compact, signed in 1961 by New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and the federal government, regulates the utilization of water of the Delaware system. The highest elevation in New York is Mount Marcy in the Adirondacks, at 5,344 feet (1,629 meters) above sea level; while the state's lowest point is at sea level, on the Atlantic Ocean.[60]

Much of New York State borders water, as is true for New York City as well. Of New York State's total area, 13.5% consists of water. The state's borders touch (clockwise from the west) two Great Lakes (Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, which are connected by the Niagara River); the provinces of Ontario and Quebec in Canada, with New York and Ontario sharing the Thousand Islands archipelago within the Saint Lawrence River; Lake Champlain; three New England states (Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut); the Atlantic Ocean, and two Mid-Atlantic states, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. In addition, Rhode Island shares a water border with New York. New York is the second largest of the original Thirteen Colonies and is the only state that touches both the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean.

In contrast with New York City's urban landscape, the vast majority of the state's geographic area is dominated by meadows, forests, rivers, farms, mountains, and lakes. New York's Adirondack Park is the largest state park in the United States and is larger than the Yellowstone, Yosemite, Grand Canyon, Glacier, and Olympic National Parks combined.[61] New York established the first state park in the United States at Niagara Falls in 1885. Niagara Falls is shared between New York and Ontario as it flows on the Niagara River from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario.

Upstate and downstate are often used informally to distinguish New York City or its greater metropolitan area from the rest of New York State. The placement of a boundary between the two is a matter of great contention.[62] Unofficial and loosely defined regions of Upstate New York include the Southern Tier, which often includes the counties along the border with Pennsylvania,[63] and the North Country, which can mean anything from the strip along the Canada–US border to everything north of the Mohawk River.[64]

Climate

Main article: Climate of New York
Lake-effect snow is a major contributor to heavy snowfall totals in western New York, including the Tug Hill region.
Skaneateles Lake, one of the eleven Finger Lakes, provides drinking water for the city of Syracuse and nearby areas in central New York.

In general, New York has a humid continental climate, though under the Köppen climate classification, New York City has a humid subtropical climate.[65] Weather in New York is heavily influenced by two continental air masses: a warm, humid one from the southwest and a cold, dry one from the northwest.

Downstate New York, comprising New York City, Long Island, and lower portions of the Hudson Valley, has rather warm summers, with some periods of high humidity, and cold, damp winters which, however, are relatively mild compared to temperatures in Upstate New York, secondary to the former region's lower elevation, proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, and relatively lower latitude compared to the latter. Upstate New York experiences warm summers, marred by only occasional, brief intervals of sultry conditions, with long and cold winters. Western New York, particularly the Tug Hill region, receives heavy lake-effect snows, especially during the earlier portions of winter, before the surface of Lake Ontario itself is covered by ice. The summer climate is cool in the Adirondacks, Catskills, and at higher elevations of the Southern Tier.

Summer daytime temperatures usually range from the upper 70s to mid-80s °F (25 to 30 °C), over much of the state. In the majority of winter seasons, a temperature of −13 °F (−25 °C) or lower can be expected in the northern highlands (Northern Plateau) and 5 °F (−15 °C) or colder in the southwestern and east-central highlands of the Southern Tier.

New York ranks 46th among the 50 states in the amount of greenhouse gases generated per person. This relative efficient energy usage is primarily due to the dense, compact settlement in the New York City metropolitan area, and the state population's high rate of mass transit use in this area and between major cities.[66]

Monthly normal high and low temperatures for New York cities (°F)[67](Fahrenheit)
City  Jan   Feb   Mar    Apr   May   Jun   Jul   Aug   Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec 
Albany max
min
31
13
34
16
44
25
57
36
70
46
78
55
82
60
80
58
71
50
60
39
48
31
36
20
Binghamton max
min
28
15
31
17
41
25
53
35
66
46
73
54
78
59
76
57
68
50
57
40
44
31
33
21
Buffalo max
min
31
18
33
19
42
26
54
36
66
48
75
57
80
62
78
60
70
53
59
43
47
34
36
24
Lake Placid max
min
27
5
32
8
40
16
54
29
66
39
74
48
78
53
76
51
69
44
56
34
44
25
32
12
Long Beach max
min
39
23
40
24
48
31
58
40
69
49
77
60
83
66
82
64
75
57
64
45
54
36
44
28
New York City max
min
38
26
41
28
50
35
61
44
71
54
79
63
84
69
82
68
75
60
64
50
53
41
43
32
Rochester max
min
31
17
33
17
43
25
55
35
68
46
77
55
81
60
79
59
71
51
60
41
47
33
36
23
Syracuse max
min
31
14
34
16
43
24
56
35
68
46
77
55
82
60
80
59
71
51
60
40
47
32
36
21
Monthly normal high and low temperatures for New York cities (°C)(Celsius)
City  Jan   Feb   Mar    Apr   May   Jun   Jul   Aug   Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec 
Albany max
min
−1
−11
1
−9
7
−4
14
2
21
8
26
13
28
16
27
14
22
10
16
4
9
−1
2
−7
Binghamton max
min
−2
−9
−1
−8
5
−4
12
2
19
8
23
12
26
15
24
14
20
10
14
4
7
−1
1
−6
Buffalo max
min
−1
−8
1
−7
6
−3
12
2
19
9
24
14
27
17
26
16
21
12
15
6
8
1
2
−4
Lake Placid max
min
−3
−15
0
−13
4
−9
12
−2
19
4
23
9
26
12
24
11
21
7
13
1
7
−4
0
−11
Long Beach max
min
4
−5
4
−4
9
−1
14
4
21
9
25
16
28
19
28
18
24
14
18
7
12
2
7
−2
New York City max
min
3
−3
5
−2
10
2
16
7
22
12
26
17
29
21
28
20
24
16
18
10
12
5
6
0
Rochester max
min
−1
−8
1
−8
6
−4
13
2
20
8
25
13
27
16
26
15
22
11
16
5
8
1
2
−5
Syracuse max
min
−1
−10
1
−9
6
−4
13
2
20
8
25
13
28
16
27
15
22
11
16
4
8
0
2
−6
Converted from Fahrenheit data (above)

Statescape

The skyscrapers of New York City, the most populous U.S. city with 8.6 million residents in 2015, are mostly situated in Manhattan, seen here in this panorama viewed across the Hudson River from Weehawken, New Jersey, in January 2015. One57 and 432 Park Avenue are noted left of center; the Empire State Building, right of center; and on the far right of the picture, One World Trade Center, the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere, as well as Four World Trade Center, 70 Pine Street, the Woolworth Building, and 40 Wall Street. At the center of the skyline picture, the Chrysler Building, The New York Times Building, and the Conde Nast Building can be picked out of the crowd by their spires.
View of the Adirondack Mountains from the 5,344-foot (1,629-meter) summit of Mount Marcy, New York's tallest peak.
Panorama of the state capital Albany and the Hudson River from Rensselaer. At the left foreground is the System Administration Building of the State University of New York. The tallest skyscraper visible is one of several buildings in the Empire State Plaza governmental complex.
The Thousand Islands constitute an archipelago within the Saint Lawrence River. Boldt Castle, on Heart Island, is seen at center.
The Great Peconic Bay, with the Atlantic Ocean as its primary inflow, separates the North Fork and South Fork at the East End of Long Island.

Regions

Economic regions of New York

Due to its long history, the state of New York has several overlapping (and often conflicting) definitions of regions within the state. This is further exacerbated by the colloquial use of such regional labels. The New York State Department of Economic Development provides two distinct definitions of these regions. The department divides the state into ten economic regions,[68] which approximately correspond to terminology used by residents:

Tourism regions of New York

The Department of Economic Development also groups the counties into eleven regions for tourism purposes:[69]

Adjacent geographic entities

*The Atlantic Ocean lies south, southeast, and east of Long Island.

State parks

Two major state parks (in green) are the Adirondack Park (north) and the Catskill Park (south).

New York has many state parks and two major forest preserves. Adirondack Park, roughly the size of the state of Vermont and the largest state park in the United States,[70] was established in 1892 and given state constitutional protection to remain "forever wild" in 1894. The park is larger than Yellowstone, Everglades, Glacier, and Grand Canyon national parks combined.[70] The thinking that led to the creation of the Park first appeared in George Perkins Marsh's Man and Nature, published in 1864.

The Catskill Park was protected in legislation passed in 1885,[71] which declared that its land was to be conserved and never put up for sale or lease. Consisting of 700,000 acres (2,800 km2) of land,[71] the park is a habitat for bobcats, minks, and fishers. There are some 400 black bears living in the region.[72] The state operates numerous campgrounds, and there are over 300 miles (480 km) of multi-use trails in the Park.

The Montauk Point State Park boasts the 1797 Montauk Lighthouse, commissioned under President George Washington, which is a major tourist attraction on the easternmost tip of Long Island. Hither Hills park offers camping and is a popular destination with surfcasting sport fishermen.

National parks, monuments, and historic landmarks

The Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor is a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom, democracy, and opportunity.[73]

The State of New York is well represented in the National Park System with 22 national parks, which received 16,349,381 visitors in 2011. In addition, there are 4 National Heritage Areas, 27 National Natural Landmarks, 262 National Historic Landmarks, and 5,379 listings on the National Register of Historic Places.

Administrative divisions

Map of the counties in New York

New York is divided into 62 counties. Aside from the five counties of New York City, each of these counties is subdivided into towns and cities. Towns can contain incorporated villages or unincorporated hamlets. New York City is divided into five boroughs, each coterminous with a county.

Downstate New York (New York City, Long Island, and the southern portion of the Hudson Valley) can be considered to form the central core of the Northeast megalopolis, an urbanized region stretching from New Hampshire to Virginia.

The major cities of the state developed along the key transportation and trade routes of the early 19th century, including the Erie Canal and railroads paralleling it. Today, the New York Thruway acts as a modern counterpart to commercial water routes.[78]

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1790 340,120
1800 589,051 73.2%
1810 959,049 62.8%
1820 1,372,812 43.1%
1830 1,918,608 39.8%
1840 2,428,921 26.6%
1850 3,097,394 27.5%
1860 3,880,735 25.3%
1870 4,382,759 12.9%
1880 5,082,871 16.0%
1890 6,003,174 18.1%
1900 7,268,894 21.1%
1910 9,113,614 25.4%
1920 10,385,227 14.0%
1930 12,588,066 21.2%
1940 13,479,142 7.1%
1950 14,830,192 10.0%
1960 16,782,304 13.2%
1970 18,236,967 8.7%
1980 17,558,072 −3.7%
1990 17,990,455 2.5%
2000 18,976,457 5.5%
2010 19,378,102 2.1%
Est. 2015 19,795,791 2.2%
Sources:
1910–2010 1790–1900[79]
2015 Estimate[4]

Population

New York population distribution map

The distribution of change in population growth is uneven in New York State; the New York City metropolitan area is growing considerably, along with Saratoga County and the Capital District, collectively known as Tech Valley. New York City gained more residents between April 2010 and July 2014 (316,000) than any other U.S. city.[80] Conversely, outside of the Rochester and Ithaca areas, population growth in much of Western New York is nearly stagnant. According to immigration statistics, the state is a leading recipient of migrants from around the globe. Between 2000 and 2005, immigration failed to surpass emigration, a trend that has been reversing since 2006. New York State lost two House seats in the 2011 congressional reapportionment, secondary to relatively slow growth when compared to the rest of the United States. In 2000 and 2005, more people moved from New York to Florida than from any one state to another, contributing to New York becoming the U.S.'s fourth most populous state in 2015, behind Florida, Texas, and California.[81] However, New York State has the second-largest international immigrant population in the country among the American states, at 4.2 million as of 2008; most reside in and around New York City, due to its size, high profile, vibrant economy, and cosmopolitan culture.

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of New York was 19,795,791 on July 1, 2015, a 2.16% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[4] Despite the open land in the state, New York's population is very urban, with 92% of residents living in an urban area,[82] predominantly in the New York City metropolitan area.

Two-thirds of New York State's population resides in New York City Metropolitan Area. New York City is the most populous city in the United States,[83] with an estimated record high population of 8,550,405 in 2015,[8] incorporating more immigration into the city than emigration since the 2010 United States Census.[84] More than twice as many people live in New York City as in the second-most populous U.S. city (Los Angeles),[85] and within a smaller area. Long Island alone accounted for a Census-estimated 7,838,722 residents in 2015, representing 39.6% of New York State's population.[8][86][87][88][89]

Most populous counties

These are the ten counties with the largest populations as of 2010:[8][90]

  1. Kings County (Brooklyn): 2,504,700
  2. Queens County (Queens): 2,230,722
  3. New York County (Manhattan): 1,585,873
  4. Suffolk County: 1,493,350
  5. Bronx County (the Bronx): 1,385,108
  6. Nassau County: 1,339,532
  7. Erie County: 919,040
  8. Monroe County: 744,344
  9. Richmond County (Staten Island): 468,730

Major cities

There are 62 cities in New York. The largest city in the state and the most populous city in the United States is New York City, which comprises five counties (each coextensive with a borough): Bronx, New York County (Manhattan), Queens, Kings County (Brooklyn), and Richmond County (Staten Island). New York City is home to more than two-fifths of the state's population. Albany, the state capital, is the sixth-largest city in New York State. The smallest city is Sherrill, New York, in Oneida County. Hempstead is the most populous town in the state; if it were a city, it would be the second largest in New York State, with over 700,000 residents.

Metropolitan areas

The following are the top ten metropolitan areas in the state as of the 2010 Census:[91]

  1. New York City and the Hudson Valley (19,567,410 in NY/NJ/PA, 13,038,826 in NY)
  2. Rochester (1,079,671)
  3. Syracuse (662,577)
  4. Utica-Rome (299,397)
  5. Binghamton (251,725)
  6. Kingston (182,493)
  7. Glens Falls (128,923)

Racial and ancestral makeup

The Manhattan Chinatown (紐約華埠), home to the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere,[92][93][94] at top, and one of several Chinatowns in Brooklyn (布魯克林華埠) below. Chinese in New York constitute the fastest-growing nationality in New York State and on Long Island,[10][11][95][96] with large-scale Chinese immigration continuing into New York.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the 2010 racial makeup of New York State was as follows by self-identification:[97]

New York Racial Breakdown of Population
[hide]Racial composition 1950[98] 1970[98] 1990[98] 2000[99] 2010[100]
White 93.5% 86.8% 74.4% 67.9% 65.8%
Black 6.2% 11.9% 15.9% 15.9% 15.9%
Asian 0.2% 0.7% 3.9% 5.5% 7.3%
Native 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.4% 0.6%
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
0.1% 0.1%
Other race 0.4% 5.5% 7.1% 7.4%
Two or more races 3.1% 3.0%

In 2004, the major ancestry groups in New York State by self-identification were Hispanic and Latino Americans (17.6%), African American (15.8%), Italian (14.4%), Irish (12.9%), German (11.1%) and English (6%).[101] According to a 2010 estimate, 21.7% of the population is foreign-born.[97]

New York population ethnicity map

The state's most populous racial group, non-Hispanic white, has declined as a proportion of the state population from 94.6% in 1940 to 58.3% in 2010.[97][98] As of 2011, 55.6% of New York's population younger than age 1 were minorities.[102] New York's robustly increasing Jewish population, the largest outside of Israel,[103] was the highest among states both by percentage and absolute number in 2012.[104] It is driven by the high reproductive rate of Orthodox Jewish families,[105] particularly in Brooklyn and communities of the Hudson Valley.

New York is home to the second-largest African American population (after Georgia) and the second largest Asian-American population (after California) in the United States. New York's uniracial Black population increased by 2.0% between 2000 and 2010, to 3,073,800.[106] The Black population is in a state of flux, as New York is the largest recipient of immigrants from Africa,[95] while established African Americans are migrating out of New York to the southern United States.[107] The New York City neighborhood of Harlem has historically been a major cultural capital for African-Americans of sub-Saharan descent, and Bedford-Stuyvesant in Brooklyn has the largest such population in the United States. Meanwhile, New York's uniracial Asian population increased by a notable 36% from 2000 to 2010, to 1,420,244.[106] Queens, in New York City, is home to the state's largest Asian-American population and is the most ethnically diverse county in the United States; it is the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world.[108][109]

New York's growing uniracial Hispanic-or-Latino population numbered 3,416,922 in 2010,[110] a 19% increase from the 2,867,583 enumerated in 2000.[111] Queens is home to the largest Andean (Colombian, Ecuadorian, Peruvian, and Bolivian) populations in the United States. In addition, New York has the largest Puerto Rican, Dominican, and Jamaican American populations in the continental United States.

The Chinese population constitutes the fastest-growing nationality in New York State; multiple satellites of the original Manhattan Chinatown (曼哈頓華埠), in Brooklyn (布鲁克林華埠), and around Flushing, Queens (法拉盛華埠), are thriving as traditionally urban enclaves, while also expanding rapidly eastward into suburban Nassau County (拿騷縣),[112] on Long Island (長島).[113] New York State has become the top destination for new Chinese immigrants, and large-scale Chinese immigration continues into the state.[95][96][114][115][116] A new China City of America is also planned in Sullivan County.[117] Long Island, including Queens and Nassau County, is also home to several Little Indias (लघु भारत) and a large Koreatown (롱 아일랜드 코리아타운), with large and growing attendant populations of Indian Americans and Korean Americans, respectively. Brooklyn has been a destination for West Indian immigrants of African descent, as well as Asian Indian immigrants.

In the 2000 Census, New York had the largest Italian American population, composing the largest self-identified ancestral group in Staten Island and Long Island, followed by Irish Americans. Albany and the Mohawk Valley also have large communities of ethnic Italians and Irish Americans, reflecting 19th and early 20th-century immigration. In Buffalo and western New York, German-Americans comprise the largest ancestry. In the North Country of New York, French Canadians represent the leading ethnicity, given the area's proximity to Quebec. Americans of English ancestry are present throughout all of upstate New York, reflecting early colonial and later immigrants.

6.5% of New York's population were under five years of age, 24.7% under 18, and 12.9% were 65 or older. Females made up 51.8% of the state's population.

Languages

In 2010, the most common American English dialects spoken in New York, besides General American English, were the New York City area dialect (including New York Latino English and North Jersey English), the Western New England accent around Albany, and Inland Northern American English in Buffalo and western New York State. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York City,[118][119][120] making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world.[121]

As of 2010, 70.72% (12,788,233) of New York residents aged five and older reported speaking only English at home, while 14.44% (2,611,903) spoke Spanish, 2.61% (472,955) Chinese (which includes Cantonese and Mandarin), 1.20% (216,468) Russian, 1.18% (213,785) Italian, 0.79% (142,169) French Creole, 0.75% (135,789) French, 0.67% (121,917) Yiddish, 0.63% (114,574) Korean, and Polish was spoken by 0.53% (95,413) of the population over the age of five. In total, 29.28% (5,295,016) of New York's population aged five and older reported speaking a language other than English.[122]

Religion
Religion Percent(%)
Christian
  
60%
Jewish
  
7%
Muslim
  
2%
Hindu
  
1%
Buddhist
  
1%
Other
  
0.6%
No religion
  
27%